Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science

Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA)

The Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) is a database developed and maintained at ETH Zurich for the worldwide instrumentally measured energy fluxes at the surface. GEBA’s mission is to provide the worldwide most comprehensive source of information on the global distribution of surface energy fluxes.

GEBA currently undergoes major revisions and updates both technically and data content wise to meet with these goals. To date GEBA contains more than 2000 sites with 250’000 monthly means of various energy flux components.

The GEBA dataset is widely used in the international community to:


Contact: Martin Wild

Selection of Publications using GEBA data

(a more comprehensive list can be found here)

Arking, A., 1996: Absorption of solar energy in the atmosphere: discrepancy between model and observations. Science, 273, 779-782.

Li, Z., C.H. Whitlock, and T.P. Charlock, 1995: The variable effect of clouds on atmospheric absorption of solar radiation. Nature, 376, 486-490.

Norris, J.R., and Wild, M., 2006: Trends in direct and indirect aerosol radiative effects over Europe inferred from observed solar “dimming” and “brightening”, J. Geophys. Res. 112, D08214, doi:10.1029/2006JD007794.

Ohmura, A., H. Gilgen and M. Wild, 1989: Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) Report 1: Introduction. Zürcher Geographische Schriften 34, 62 pp.

Ramanathan, V., Chung, C., Kim, D., Bettge, T., Buja, L., Kiehl, J. T., Washington, W.M., Fu, Q., Sikka, D.R., and Wild, M., 2005: Atmospheric brown clouds: Impacts on South Asian climate and hydrological cycle. PNAS, 102, 5326-5333.

Rossow, W.B. and Z.-C. Zhang, 1995: Calculation of surface and top of atmosphere radiative fluxes from physical quantities based on ISCCP data sets: 2. validation and first results. J. Geophys. Res., 100(D1), 1167-1197.

Wild, M., A.Ohmura, H.Gilgen and E.Roeckner, 1995: Validation of general circulation model simulated surface radiative fluxes using surface measurements from the Global Energy Balance Archive. J. Climate, 8, 1309-1324.

Wild, M., L. Dümenil and J.P. Schulz, 1996: Regional climate simulation with a high resolution GCM: surface hydrology. Climate Dynamics, 12, 755-774.

Wild, M., A. Ohmura and U. Cubasch, 1997: GCM simulated surface energy fluxes in climate change experiments. J. of Climate, 10, 3093-3110.

Wild, M., A. Ohmura, H. Gilgen and J.J. Morcrette, 1998a: The Distribution of Solar Energy at the Earth's Surface as Calculated in the ECMWF Re-analysis. Geophysical Research Letters 25, 4373-4376.

Wild, M., A. Ohmura, H. Gilgen, E. Roeckner, M. Giorgetta and J.J. Morcrette, 1998b: The disposition of radiative energy in the global climate system: GCM-calculated versus observation estimates. Climate Dynamics, 14, 853-869.

Wild, M., 1999: Discrepancies between model-calculated and observed atmospheric shortwave absorption in areas with high aerosol loadings. J. Geophys. Res., 104 (D22), 27361-27371.

Wild, M., Ohmura, A., Gilgen, H., Morcrette, J.J., and Slingo, A., 2001: Downward longwave radiation in General Circulation Models. J. Climate, 14, 3227-3239.

Wild, M., Ohmura, A., Gilgen, H., and Rosenfeld, D., 2004: On the consistency of trends in radiation and temperature records and implications for the global hydro-logical cycle. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L11201, doi: 10.1029/2003GL019188.

Wild, M., 2005: Solar radiation budgets in atmospheric model intercomparisons from a surface perspective. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L07704, doi:10.1029/ 2005GL022421.

Wild, M., Gilgen, H., Roesch, A., Ohmura, A., Long, C., Dutton, E., Forgan, B., Kallis, A., Russak, V., and Tsvetkov, A., 2005: From dimming to brightening: Decadal changes in solar radiation at the Earth’s surface. Science, 308, 847-850.


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